WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

 

 Water is the essence of life on earth not only for the sustenance of human life and activities but for the quality of life as well. For example water is essential for all walks of life such as for food production through agriculture, for domestic water supply including drinking, cooking and personal hygiene, for generation of hydropower, for industrial development for processing, cooling, washing etc., for sustenance of ecosystems, aquatic animals and for the production of fishes and also serves as receptors of waste water discharges from municipal, industrial and agricultural sources. One fourth of the populations today are vulnerable with water shortage, poor quality of water or both, and the prospects are even worse in the future. Water need to be conserved so that it permits exploitations by affordable technological solutions. As far as India is concerned, water has become a scarce commodity today. The experts of water resources management says, India was considered as one of the wettest countries of the world, but it suffers scarcity today. It has more population, hence their demand for water to various uses like domestic purpose, livestock development, power generation, industry, agriculture, etc., is go on increasing.

 The term watershed is synonymous to basins, sub basins, macro-watersheds and micro-watersheds depending upon the extent of the drainage area. Basin or catchments is referred to the entire drainage area of a river, through which it’s run off is drained. Division of the basin on the basis of different tributaries of the river, are referred as sub basins. Further division of sub basins on the basis of areas of different smaller tributaries are called macro watersheds and its further subdivided in ultimate hydro geophysical unit termed as micro watersheds with area of 500 hectares. The deterioration of natural resources in an area can be contained and the total resources properly developed by adopting the watershed approach. The basic unit of development is a watershed, which is a manageable hydrologic unit. In this approach development is not confined just to agricultural lands alone, but covers the area, starting from the highest point of area (ridge line) to the outlet of the streams. The term resources development it stats from the most important one, that is water and then extends to the resources of fuel, fodder, livestock, and all associated components. In the present study, the actual work involved fuel-fodder plantation in catchments, construction of erosion control structures like check dams, graded bunds, construction of small water – storage reservoirs, adoption of appropriated cropping systems, culturable methods and water management practice.

 

 JHARKHAND STATE

 

 The Jharkhand State is one of the newly established States of Indian Union carved out of the State of Bihar in November 2000 consisting 24 districts, namely Bokaro, Chatra, Deoghar, Dhanbad, Dumka, East Singhbhum, Garhwa, Giridih, Godda, Gumla, Hazaribagh, Jamtara, Koderma, Latehar, Lohardaga, Pakur, Palamu, Ranchi, Sahibganj, Saraikela-Kharsawa, Simdega and West Singhbhum. Jharkhand is known to possess diverse physical features like hills and forests within the territory. Jharkhand meaning "forest tract" is the ancient name given, as a whole, to the forested upland geographically known as the Chota Nagpur Plateau forming the north-eastern portion of the Peninsular Plateaus of India. It is a region of great unevenness consisting of a succession of plateaus, hills and valleys, drained by several large rivers such as the Damodar, Barakar, Subarnarekha, Brahmani, Baitarani and Mahanadi. In its physical features, geological formation, botanical products, mineral wealth, in its ethnological peculiarities, social and political history, this area presents a striking contrast to the rest of Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, and Madhya Pradesh, of which it forms a part.